Paradoxes that make you think! (Top 10)

this is the top 10 Most Puzzling Paradoxes Ever!
These Paradoxes will make you seriously think
at least 1 new videos every Sunday!
Hope you enjoy, if you know of anymore Paradoxes please let everyone know in the comments 🙂 looking forward to seeing you all next week!

Paradoxes mentioned or referenced in this video are,
Theseus Ship
Grandfather’s Axe
The Grandfather paradoxes
The Bootstrap paradox
Super Tasks
This Statement is False
The Monty Hall Paradox
The Unexpected Hanging Paradox
Infinite loop Paradox
Infinite Numbers
Coastline Paradox
The Raven paradox
The Paradox of the Court

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  1. 10: it's not so much a paradox, as much an issue of 'how we describe/define a thing'. the ship's changed, but we don't consider it to be different. even with all the original parts gone, we still might not consider it to be different. however, when we build the next ship, then we have the issue of what we're calling things appear, because idealistically, it makes more sense to call the newly reformed ship by the original ship's name, however all the other pieces have been considered to be 'part' of the replaced ship, so we consider them to be entitled to the same name.

    more simply, your dad's axe, replacing the handle doesn't change how you THINK about the axe, it's still your dad's axe. replacing the head still doesn't change how you think about it. but rebuilding the old axe turns up the issue of how you're defining the axe.

    tbh it's not that much a paradox, because we as people get tiny pieces of ourselves replaced all the time, both physically and mentally, and we've got no real reason to define ourselves as being 'different'. though, it's also harder to 'rebuild' a version of us, too. let's say a past version of us time traveled to the future to meet older you. it's still considered 'you' just, a different version of you with different parts.

    9: kinda again more human expectations than legit paradox in my way of thinking. 'it'll be a surprise' means more "i'm not telling you when" then a law of reality that you can then extrapolate info from. though i would say if you were alive Friday past like, 10 pm, Saturday execution wouldn't be that surprising. but hell, maybe it's done on Sunday, and the judge lied about it being this week, or just got delayed for whatever reason, or it's just a 'surprise' in the sense of the day of the courtroom, not necessarily always meant to be a surprise.

    8: the problem with these is, while it works idealistically, there's still actual, real world limits to them, though they work as thought experiments (though not saying you can actually judge whether it'll be on or off). there's a limit to how fast you can flick the lamp, so it is NOT infinitely divisible. though, to be fair, it's not, anyway. there's a limit to how fast reality can change, it's the 'speed limit' of massless particles, like, light for example. lightspeed's not that special or significant, it's just literally the fastest information in reality can change. same with movement is a supertask, but really, of course it's not except as a concept, because it happens all the fucking time. mathematially you can divide the time it'd take something to move indefinitely, eventually you'll hit lightspeed and a second's still a second, regardless.

    7: again, more sorta idealized, but works. the first choice still has basically a 33% chance, because it's odds did not change when the first box was revealed (sorta like how flipping a coin heads 8 times in a row doesn't mean the next one is gonna be tails anymore than it had to be tails before this started). however, once one of the boxes is revealed, there's now the statistical change, where it's just 50/50, though tbh we also know that the first box is now sharing the statistical chance, given it was picked at 33%, picking the other box would be picking a box currently at 50%, because the odds HAVE changed, with the options as they are now, where the coin toss is still 50/50.

    6: bootstrap paradox for me is a tad harder than the grandfather paradox, but still got an answer: immutable, constant timeline, which it actually describes. BEFORE time travel was invented, the time travel event still happened as it will be set up as later. the time travel is essentially only a perspective change for the traveler, nothing else has changed. X happened, because in the future someone would travel back in time to do something. like, fry being his own grandfather. he was ALWAYS his own grandpa, he didn't change anything, merely caught up to the change.

    tbh the harder one is the sort of 'no origin point' version. you're given a hankie by a stranger, the hankie saves your life, you later go back in time to give yourself the hankie. there's no point you GOT the hankie, outside of time travel. a cool movie about this is predestination. this concept doesn't work with the above idea, as even with the 'immutable timeline' there's no 'original point' for the hankie. there was no materials it was made of, making it, it being sold, ending up in your hands, then looping, no, it's a constant, consistent loop (though alternate timelines could be the answer here, a 'first run' might've set it up, but goes against the idea i used for earlier).

    grandfather paradox gets two more possibilities. the already, immutable paradox, where presumably you killed someone who you thought was your grandpa, your grandma still gave birth to your dad.
    second, diverging timelines. time is mutable, however changes just make a new branch in the timeline. your not necessarily affected, but now you're not gonna be born in the new timeline. you've still got an origin point in the original one, however.
    and third, pretty similar but slightly different 'excuse', mutable, single, timeline, but no backwards ripples. only one timeline, but killing your grandfather does not erase you from the timeline, though you now no longer have an origin point in this timeline. not a paradox so much as 'time travel doesn't work that way' with this excuse.

    5: not so much a paradox, more a logic fallacy.

    4: sorta the same, + people's concepts. it's trying to provide meaningful info to a statement that doesn't necessarily support it, and implying the meaningful info is true, and false at the same time, and just loops back around again. a is like b, b is like c, doesn't mean a is like c.

    3: again, about how one thinks of something, idealistically. for the coastline of a country, presumably taking shortcuts/estimations is fine, however it might not be entirely 'accurate' to the smallest detail, given it's not straight lines, it bobs and weaves a bit. and again, you can't always divide indefinitely IRL, and there's some point where it makes such a finite difference that it might not matter to anyone, but then, that's sorta what this is about, people's ideas of limitations. like, if you changed the measurement from say, 3 inches to 1 inch, and the distance changed one BILLIONTH of a percent, would it really matter that much to displaying the measurements, especially of a country? they're not actually gonna scale up indefinitely, they might get closer to 'perfectly accurate' but there's a point where no further measurements will make it a mile longer, than a foot longer, then an inch longer, and while it does trail off to infinity, it's not really growing significantly to say it's actually getting much bigger.

    2: it's not gonna be half the size. it's infinite. it NEVER ends, there's no finite point, and no limit. however, in comparison, page for page, the odd book will climb in numbers at double the rate as the even + odd numbers, if each page holds 100 numbers, page 2 will start with 100 or 101, depending on if they started with 0, page 2 in odd book starts at 201 (there's definitely no 0, as it's not odd or even, and it's basically 2X for # of even numbers, but 2X-1 for odd of X number of odd numbers, the 100th even number is 200, but one comes before two, so the 100th of number is 199) but there's still no 'end' to the pages to speak of. just, relative to another infinity, there's differences. it's more human understanding of the concept of numbers in general, that doesn't fit with 'infinite' because it's hard to wrap your head around, than a paradox, too, saying there's gonna be half the pages already implies there's a limit to the pages. there's only a sort of measurement of infinity, when compared to another infinity.

    1: for the judge one, i think the idea that there's a court of law going "pay/don't pay" sort of supersedes any real choices for the people involved. i mean, the student could lose, and go "i don't have to pay you, according to the agreement" but the judgement of the court's gonna probably fuck him over and take his money anyway. and the judge could go "you don't have to pay, that was a stupid idea" the student could win, the tutor could be like "you won, pay me" and the student would be like "no, we just went to court over it, i don't have to pay you" and he can't be sued AGAIN for the same topic, so he could avoid it.

    basically, involving a party that, regardless of the points of view of the people involved either way, can and will potentially make their findings happen, kinda ruins it, i think. as a thought experiment, it's fine, but as soon as you get to "well, if the judge says pay, you fucking better, and if the judge says you don't have to, there's not much the tutor can really do about it after the fact, so it's an option then, either pay, or don't.".

    though, if the judge then says "you don't have to pay", the student won, and it kinda turns into the crocodile paradox, the croc says it'll give back the kid if you guess correctly, and the tutor essentially said 'yes, you'll pay me back" of course, the issue with this is we're assuming that what someone says they're gonna do is some sort of law of reality. maybe they were lying when they said the shit to start with, maybe they changed their mind, the only way it's a paradox is if they absolutely HAVE to do it, and there's not even a hint of an option otherwise.

    also, yes, i am that much of an idiot/pedantic prick that i've thought these through to some degree before and wrote a fucking essay about the shit as a reply.

  2. wait, you got a twin? or just your editing skills…

  3. Nice one bro!

  4. thank you for sharing. i enjoyed your video.

  5. I really liked this. Infinite can be different sizes though. Your example of the pointless book shows that both would be infinite but the odd numbers would be half the size of the infinite one but still infinite. Weird isn’t it? There’s also something in subject dualism about replacing neurons in the brain with computer cables and at what point does a human become a machine.

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